|Two arc sets composed of shield and stratovolcanoes.|
The energy required to melt ices and produce cryovolcanoes usually comes from tidal friction. It has also been suggested that translucent deposits of frozen materials could create a sub-surface greenhouse effect that would accumulate the required heat.
Some hypothesize that the Kuiper belt object Quaoar exhibited cryovolcanism in the past. Radioactive decay could also provide the energy necessary for such activity. Cryovolcanoes can emit water mixed with ammonia.
|Symmetrical unbreached cone Ice volcano|
Such a mixture would melt at -95°C, creating an extremely cold liquid that would flow out of the volcano. On November 27, 2005 Cassini photographed geysers on the south pole of Enceladus.
Indirect evidence of cryovolcanic activity was later observed on several other icy moons of our Solar System, including Europa, Titan, Ganymede, and Miranda. Cassini has observed several features thought to be cryovolcanoes on Titan. Such volcanism is now believed to be a significant source of the methane found in Titan's atmosphere.
|Ice built up along a rock reef.|
Image shown are the-
Ice Volcanoes of Lake Superior's South Shore, an example of a Cryovolcano